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This section provides technical information and techniques to evaluate diamond saw blade performance, determine the cause and effect of equipment, operator, and site conditions on diamond saw blade performance, and determine what type of diamond saw blade to use for the job site conditions. All the informational links such as Trouble shooting diamond saw blades, Do's & Do nots, concrete basics, Diamond basics, Diamond tools & Technology, and diamond saw blade basics are provided to you the customer to ensure the longest life of your diamond saw blade.

1.
Loss of Tension
7.
Eccentricity
2.
Undercutting
8.
Segment Loss
3.
Uneven Segment Wear
9.
Overheated Diamond Saw Blade
4.
Excessive Wear
10.
Arbor Hole Out of Round
5.
Cracked Segments
11.
Diamond Saw Blade Won't Cut
6.
Cracked Core

Loss of Tension
Cause: Diamond saw blade is used on a misaligned saw.
Remedy: Check for proper alignment in saw manufacturers owners manual.
Cause: Diamond saw blade is excessively hard for the material being cut, creating stress on the steel center.
Remedy: Make certain that the diamond saw blade is correct for the material being cut. (see your dealer)
Cause: Material slippage causing the diamond saw blade to twist and become kinked or bent.
Remedy: Maintain a tight grip on the material while sawing.
Cause: Utilizing blade flanges that are under size or not the same diameter, creating uneven pressure on the center.
Remedy: Make certain that the blade flanges are of proper size and identical diameter.
Cause: Diamond saw blade is used at improper RPM, over speeding.
Remedy: Make certain the diamond saw blade shaft is turning at the proper RPM by using a Tachometer. This is especially important with concrete saws.
Cause: Diamond saw blade is improperly mounted on the arbor shoulder and becomes bent when the flanges are tightened.
Remedy: Hold the diamond saw blade securely on arbor shoulder until the outside flange and nut are firmly tightened.
Cause: Diamond saw blade core is overheating from lack of side clearance due to uneven or too rapid segment wear.
Remedy: Specify a diamond saw blade with a greater side clearance or specification more suited to the material being cut.
Cause: Diamond saw blade core is overheating from lack of adequate coolant.
Remedy: Check water supply system for even water flow on both sides of the blade. For dry cutting, make more shallow, intermittent cuts allowing time for air to cool the diamond saw blade.
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Undercutting
Undercutting is a common condition found in almost every diamond saw blade application involving the sawing of abrasive materials. Undercutting is caused by abrasive slurry wearing away the steel core, just beneath the diamond segment. The steel core can wear to a "knife edge" which will cause the diamond segments to separate from the core. This condition is found mostly on diamond saw blades used for asphalt or green concrete pavemnet sawing. Undercutting can be greatly accelerated when the diamond saw blade cuts completely through the pavement and into the loose sub-base.
Cause: Undercutting is a condition in which the steel core wears faster than the diamond saw blade segment, especially in the areas where the segment and core are joined. The condition is caused by highly abrasive material grinding against the blade during the sawing operation. Usually materials containing sand are responsible for causing this condition. (see section on Segment Loss) .
Remedy: The flow of slurry (abrasive cuttings) must be distributed over a wider area, away from the critical segment area. On most occasions this can be accomplished by using undercut protectors specially positioned around the steel core to change the pattern of abrasion. Although successful in most cases, undercut protectors do not provide 100% protection. Use high water flow to thin the slurry and flush away sand particles.
Cause: With a floor saw, sawing all the way through the material, allowing the blade to pickup sub-base material.
Remedy: Set the cutting depth slightly less than or equal to the total thickness of the slab.
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Uneven Segment Wear
Cause: Segments worn on one side reducing side clearance. Usually caused by misalignment of the saw or a lack of sufficient water on both sides of the diamond saw blade.
Remedy: Check the saw alignment. Clean the water system, making certain that water is properly applied to both sides of the diamond saw blade. Check to see if the pump is supplying sufficient water. (see excessive wear section)
Cause: Diamond saw blade is worn out of round due to bad bearings, worn arbor, missing bushing, arbor hole larger than arbor, cleanliness of or damage to flange surfaces or excessively dull condition. (see section on excessive wear).
Remedy: Replace the bearings or worn arbor as required. Inspect the flanges for damage and foreign materials; replace if necessary. Do not remove drive pins when supplied with diamond saw blade flanges.
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Excessive Wear
Sooner or later everyone involved in using diamond saw blades hears about this one..."the diamond saw blade wore out too fast". Before you get too far, make sure that you do indeed have a problem. Every user seems to have a different opinion about what is acceptable diamond saw blade life. Just make sure that you understand what is considered good diamond saw blade life, and what is considered bad diamond saw blade life.

Assuming there is a problem, the most common cause is simply using the wrong blade specification. If you buy a "hard cured concrete" diamond saw blade specification, and then uses it to cut asphalt, the blade will wear out very fast. Check the application and then check and make sure have the right diamond saw blade for the job.

Insufficient water supply or cooling air can cause excessive diamond saw blade wear. Make sure that there is plenty of water for cooling wet cutting diamond saw blades, and make sure proper sawing techniques are used with dry cutting diamond saw blades. Saw operators need to get into the habit of making sure that there is proper coolant on the diamond saw blade.

Another cause for excessive diamond saw blade wear is insufficient power or speed to the diamond saw blade. Whenever a diamond saw blade is turning well below the recommended speed range, the blade will tend to wear fast. This condition can be caused by loose drive belts, a lack of power from the engine, or low voltage/amperage going into the electric motor.

To correct this condition make sure that you have adequate voltage and amperage going into your electric motor. Also check belt tension regularly. Voltage and amperage should be checked at the motor. For gas or diesel engines, make sure that they are properly tuned and that they are running at full speed when sawing. The diamond saw blade user should make sure to match the diameter of the blade to the blade shaft speed of the saw. While it is acceptable diameter diamond saw blade on a 14" capacity saw, substantially smaller diamond saw blade used on a larger capacity saw will cause the smaller diameter diamond saw blade to be turning at a very low speed, decreasing diamond saw blade life.
Cause: Using the wrong blade on highly abrasive material. (Example: hard concrete diamond saw blade used on asphalt)
Remedy: Recommend the proper diamond saw blade specification for abrasive material.
Cause: Lack of sufficient water to the diamond saw blade. Often detected by examining the segment and noting overexposed or highly exposed diamonds.
Remedy: Clean up the water system. Make certain the water pump is functioning properly.
Cause: Wearing out of round accelerates wear. Usually caused by bad bearings, worn shaft or using a diamond saw blade too hard for the materials being cut.
Remedy: Check the bearings and arbor. If worn, replace with new parts before installing another diamond saw blade; select the proper diamond saw blade for the application.
Cause: Insufficient power caused by loose V-belts, inadequate voltage/amperage, or improper RPM's.
Remedy: Tighten belts. Replace worn belts. Check voltage/amperage. Use proper size extension cord.
Cause: Diamond saw blade is not perpendicular to material being cut.
Remedy: Check diamond saw blade shaft and flanges to ensure proper alignment of the diamond saw blade and equipment.
Cause: Diamond saw blade shaft RPM is too low.
Remedy: Check the operating RPM of the diamond saw blade shaft. If necessary, change equipment or modify the blade shaft speed.
diamond saw blade, diamond blade
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Cracked segments
Cause: Diamond saw blade is too hard for the material being cut.
Remedy: Use a diamond saw blade with a softer bond.
Cause: Diamond saw blade is being flexed in the cut by misaligned saw, or operator making dramatic saw xourse correstions.
Remedy: Align saw. If cut has slightly wandered off line, gradually steer the saw back on line. If the cut is way off line, remove the diamond saw blade from the cut. Align the saw/blade with the cut line, plunge the blade to proper cut depth and resume sawing.
Cause: Diamond saw blade is overheated.
Remedy: Apply proper cooling.
diamond saw blade, diamond blade
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Cracked Core
One of the most common blade failures is core crack failure. Core cracks are a result of the stress put on the core at the root of the notch or gullet from the segments being pushed into the material at the point of initial contact and being pulled out of the cut at the end of contact with material. This is analogous to bending a piece of wire back and forth until it breaks. Core cracking can not be stopped or eliminated. Blade manufactures design the blade core system to not begin core cracking until well after the expected life of the diamond saw blade under normal operating conditions. If during cutting operations the diamond saw blade is subjected to pounding, twisting, overheating, or other abnormal stresses, core cracks will develop prior to the diamond saw blade being worn out. The presence of a visible core crack renders the diamond saw blade unusable. The danger in using a core cracked diamond saw blade is that for every visible crack there are several cracks that are not visible. Continuing to use a core cracked blade will result in catastrophic failure of the core causing large sections of the core to fly off at energy levels equal to a 22 caliber bullet. A core cracked must not be used. The figure below is the perfect example of how you can see major cracks in the core.

diamond saw blade, diamond blade

This failure occurs almost instantaneously because the cracks progress slowly until the material separating the cracks can no longer withstand the stresses imparted to the diamond saw blade and then failure occurs at the speed of sound in steel which is 19,553.81 ft/sec.

One of the leading causes of core cracks is that the diamond saw blade specification is too hard for the material being cut. The saw operator has a tendency to push the blade very hard in order to "make" it cut. Eventually something has to give, and many times it is the steel core which cracks. The solution is to check the diamond saw blade specification and make sure it is the correct one for the material the user is cutting. If the diamond saw blade has become dull, sharpen it by cutting some soft abrasive material such as asphalt, block or mortar before sawing again.

A misaligned saw or excessive side pressure put on the blade while cutting can cause core cracks. A misaligned saw or excessive side pressure can be detected by uneven signs of wear on one side of the blade core. To prevent this problem, make sure that your saw is properly aligned and cuts in a straight line. If, for whatever reason, the diamond saw blade begins to saw"off-line", it is easier on the blade ( and generally faster), to take the diamond saw blade up out of the cut and restart the cut on-line. continually trying to make alignment correction while the blade is in the cut will cause core cracks.

A worn blade shaft or diamond saw blade shaft bearing can set up a "pounding" effect. Be sure that your saw is properly maintained and that worn diamond saw blade shafts or diamond saw blade shaft bearings are replaced immediately.

Cause: Diamond saw blade is too hard for the material being cut.
Remedy: Use the correct blade with a softer bond.
Cause: Excessive cutting pressure, or jamming or twisting the blade in the cut can cause the blade core to bend or flex. When subjected to extreme stress and metal fatigue, the diamond saw blade's steel core will eventually crack.
Remedy: The saw operator should use steady, even in feed pressure, and be careful not to twist or jam the diamond saw blade in the cut.
Cause: Overheating through inadequate water supply or improper use of dry cutting diamond saw blades.
Remedy: Use adequate water to cool wet cutting diamond saw blades (for example, 2-5 gallons per minute for concrete saws). Allow adequate airflow around dry cutting diamond saw blades to prevent overheating.
Cause: RPM is too high.
Remedy: Check the operating RPM of the diamond saw blade shaft. Change equipment or diamond saw blades if necessary.
Cause: Diamond saw blade is out of tension.
Remedy: Replace the diamond saw blade or have the blade re tensioned by manufacturer.
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Eccentricity
Cause: The bond is too hard for the material being cut. The hard bond retains the diamonds, which begin to round off, causing the diamond saw blade to become dull. Instead of cutting, the blade bedgins to pound, causing the blade to wear out of round.
Remedy: Change to a softer bond, which will wear away more readily, allowing the dull diamonds to be released and sharp, new cutting edges to become exposed.
Cause: The saw's diamond saw blade shaft may have a groove scored in it, caused by a diamond saw blade spinning between the flanges.. A new diamond saw blade, installed on the arbor shaft, will seat into the groove, and immediately run eccentrically when the saw starts.
Remedy: Replace the worn shaft.
Cause: If the diamond saw blade shaft bearings are worn, the shaft and mandrel will run eccentrically, causing the diamond saw blade to wear out of round. Can happen with concrete saws when proper lubrication of the bearings is neglected.
Remedy: Install new diamond saw blade shaft bearings. In some cases it might also be necessary to replace the diamond blade shaft if it is worn or out of alignment.
diamond saw blade, diamond blade
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Segment Loss
Except for rare instances such as bad weld or undercutting, the reasons that diamond saw blade segments are lost are impact damage or extreme stress. Let's look at some of the common causes for segment loss.

Material slipping and jamming itself against the blade is a common cause for segment loss, particularly in masonry or tile sawing applications. Many times the break itself will appear very jagged, and damage to the core itself will be obvious. To prevent this type of damage, the saw operator must make sure that the material is "seated" securely on the saw, and that he holds the material firmly through the entire cutting stroke.

A worn diamond saw blade shaft or diamond saw blade shaft bearing is another common cause of segment loss. In addition to loose or broken segments, these blades will sometimes show signs of eccentric or uneven segment wear caused by the "pounding" effect of the blade in the cut.

A worn diamond saw blade shaft can be the result of diamond saw blades spinning on the shaft which wears a groove in the shaft at the point where diamond saw blades are normally mounted. With a grooved shaft, the diamond saw blade drops into the groove when it is mounted on the saw. This means the diamond saw blade is mounted "off center" and will be jumping up and down in the cut.

This same type of "pounding" effect can be caused by worn diamond saw blade shaft bearings which allow the diamond saw blade shaft to move up and down inside the bearing housing. Both the diamond saw blade shaft and the diamond saw blade shaft bearing should be checked regularly. At the first sign of wear or damage, those parts should be replaced.

Inadequate water supply or air coolant is a frequent cause of diamond saw blade damage. If diamond saw blades are not properly cooled, they can generate a tremendous amount of heat from friction in the cut. It is critical that saw operators constantly monitor water flow on wet cutting diamond saw blades, and the entire water system should be checked regularly, including the water pump, water tubes and water jets in the diamond saw blade guard.

For dry cutting diamond saw blades, the operator's sawing technique is critical in making sure that there is plenty of cooling air flow around the diamond saw blade. Dry cutting diamond saw blades should not be used for one-pass, deep cutting or subjected to continuous cutting pressure. It is important to remember that dry cutting diamond saw blades are cooled with air, and must be given periodic rest periods (i.e. removal of cutting pressure) to allow air to remove the heat generated in the cut.

The effects of inadequate water or air coolant on a diamond saw blade are obvious. diamond saw blades will typically have black and blue discolorations around the edge of the diamond saw blade. An overheated diamond saw blade can also show other signs of damage such as segment loss, loss of tension and core cracks.

Preventing overheating problems on wet cutting diamond saw blades is really very simple. The operator must make sure that he has adequate water flow on both sides of the diamond saw blade at all times. Many times it only takes a few seconds without water for diamond saw blades to be damaged.

For dry cutting diamond saw blades, saw operators should make intermittent shallow cuts. If full depth cutting is required, the operator should make several shallow passes (step cut). Dry cutting diamond saw blades should be used only for intermittent sawing. This means that the diamond saw blade should be allowed to run free by taking cutting pressure off the diamond saw blade every few seconds and allowing it to run back up to full speed. The operator must allow air to flow around the blade core to keep it cool.

A mismounted diamond saw blade or loose diamond saw blade flanges can cause segment loss. The nut or bolt which holds the flanges and blade shaft together on the shaft must be "wrench tight". If the diamond saw blade shaft bolt or nut is not tightened securely, the diamond saw blade may "flutter" on the shaft at high speed. diamond saw blades which have lost segments due to loose flanges will sometimes have damaged or distorted arbor holes or drive pin holes.

If foreign material such as dirt or sand is between the diamond saw blade core and flanges, or if the diamond saw blade is mismounted on the shaft, the diamond saw blade still may "flutter" on the shaft even though the blade shaft nut or both feels "tight". Often there is evidence of debris on the blade or flanges, or marks around the arbor hole as evidence of mismounting.

Cause: Diamond saw blade is too hard for the material it is cutting, causing excessive dullness, which causes the segment to pound off or fatigue.
Remedy: Use a softer diamond saw blade specification.
Cause: Worn diamond saw blade flanges fail to provide proper support, causing the diamond saw blade to deflect.
Remedy: Replace both blade flanges..
Cause: Out of round diamond saw blade rotation results in pounding, caused by a worn arbor or bad bearings in the shaft.
Remedy: Replace worn arbor and/or bearings.
Cause: Overheating. Usually an easily detected bluish color on the steel center, generally confined to the area where the segment was lost.
Remedy: Check the water system for blocked water passages. Test the pump to see if it is functioning. For dry cutting it may be necessary to make shallower cuts and allow the diamond saw blade to run free every few minutes to let the air cool the diamond saw blade.
Cause: Segment is subjected to sudden, sharp jolting while moving the machine or when contacting the material being cut.
Remedy: Avoid jarring the diamond saw blade when transporting the machine. Contact the material with slow, even movements.
Cause: Undercutting.
Remedy: (see undercutting section of trouble shooting diamond saw blades)
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Overheated Diamond Saw Blade
Cause: Adequate coolant was not provided.
Remedy: Check the water supply for an adequate volume and for obstructions through water system. Use dry diamond saw blades only for shallow cutting of 1-2 inches deep or step cutting. Allow the diamond saw blade to run free every 10-15 seconds to increase cooling airflow.
Cause: Using improper specification for the material being cut.
Remedy: Consult the manufacturer's specification chart for the proper diamond saw blade.
diamond saw blade, diamond blade
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Arbor Hole Out of Round
Cause: Saw arbor badly worn due to blade being improperly mounted.
Remedy: Be certain the diamond saw blade is properly mounted on the arbor before tightening the flange.
Cause: Diamond saw blade flanges have been improperly tightened, permitting the diamond saw blade to rotate on the shaft.
Remedy: Always wrench tighten the arbor nut. Never hand tighten. Always use hex nuts. Never use wing nuts.
Cause: Diamond saw blade flanges, drive pin or the arbor shaft are won and not providing proper diamond saw blade support.
Remedy: Check the blade flanges, arbor shaft and drive pin for wear, foreign matter and proper tightness. Both flanges should be no less diameter than recommended by the manufacturer. Replace worn parts.
diamond saw blade, diamond blade
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Diamond Saw Blade Won't Cut
Cause: Diamond saw blade is too hard for the materials being cut. (Examples: block or general purpose diamond saw blade being used for extended period on hard brick. Asphalt diamond saw blade being used to cut hard concrete.)
Remedy: Consult the dealer or manufacturer for the proper diamond saw blade to cut materials on the job.
Cause: Insufficient power to permit the diamond saw blade to cut properly. (Loose V-belts, low voltage, motor lacks horsepower).
Remedy: Check belts, voltage/amperage and horsepower.
Cause: Diamond saw blade segments still appear to have plenty of life, but the diamond saw blade will not cut.
Remedy: Some diamond saw blades have a non-diamond bearing section in the backing at the base of the diamond segment for better adherence to the steel core. A diamond saw blade used to this stage has worn out in the normal manner and should be replaced.
Cause: Diamond saw blades become glazed due to excessive RPM.
Remedy: Match diamond saw blade specification and diameter to the machine RPM and cutting conditions.
Cause: Diamond saw blade becomes glazed due to inadequate pressure against the material being cut.
Remedy: Ensure proper pressure to keep the diamond saw blade sharpened, while avoiding an excess of pressure.
diamond saw blade, diamond blade
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